Advertising And Children Essays

Advertising Essays

by Manj
(India)


Hello Friends, I am practicing for my General writing task 2 and below is one of the essay.


Please help me with your feedback.

Thanks

Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things that we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives.

Which viewpoint do you agree with?


Advertising, a key factor for the success of any business. It is a medium through which consumers are made aware of new products or enhancements made to the existing products. Some argue that it makes people buy things which they don’t need and few refute it stating it does helps them in improving their lives. These would be further discussed in the following points.

To Start with, few are of the opinion that advertising lure them to buy products which are not required. This can be seen with people who are obsessed with gadgets. Whenever they come across any attractive product which has got an impressive functionality, they prefer buying it, even if they don’t require it. Hence, it is evident that why few believe that advertising encourages them to buy unnecessary products.

On the contrary, few support advertising, stating that it helps them in improving their lives. For instance, advertisements on new fitness products or new and improved groceries items which make people in improving their lifestyle. Thus, it can be seen that why many are in the support of advertising.

To conclude, after analyzing above points, it is clear that few buy unnecessary products based on their features and few buy it based on their benefits. As far as I am concerned I believe advertising spread awareness of new products to consumers which at the end of the day benefits all.

Ways of Advertising Essay

by ana maria dumitrescu
(bucharest, romania)

Some of the methods used in advertising are unethical and unacceptable in today’s society.

To what extent do you agree with this view?


Advertising is all around us. We see billboards on every tall building in the city, the movies and shows we watch on TV are constantly interrupted by commercials, every magazine and newspaper that we buy reserves a considerable number of pages for advertising.

Personally, I strongly feel that advertising intrudes on our lives and manipulates our minds in a highly unethical way. First of all, like it or not, we cannot escape it. And perhaps this is one of its methods to reach its purpose. Regardless of how unacceptable we may find it, we cannot elude it, we cannot get away from it. And this, in itself, is a violation.

Second of all, my opinion is that advertisements rely on half truths and deceit to attract consumers (a revealing example is that of certain commercials for dietary products that unrealistically promise spectacular results in short periods of time with no side effects). Advertising practically feeds on the lack of education and the gullibility of some and, even more terrifying, on people's fears and frustrations. Not rarely do publicity experts first create the impression of a need, a false problem, to later come with a solution to it.

Lastly, I find that too many advertisements use overly sexualized imagery. Objectifying women and exposing children to semi nude pictures raises serious questions about the morality of publicity and also about the morality of a society that allows this to happen.

To conclude, i feel that advertising should be regulated by stricter laws and we, as a society, should not stand idly by while it intrudes our lives in morally dubious ways.

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Essay on the Power of Advertising

by chikky
(ananthapuram)

Hi all,

Can anyone help me checking and evaluating my answer so it'll be so helpful for me to take my ielts exam where i am supposed to take writing band 7 ...

Here's the question,

Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflects the power of advertising and not the real needs of the society in which they are sold.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?


In our day to day life, we are exposed to many adverts whenever we switch on our T.V, radio, internets and also across the streets wherever we pass by. Moreover, the advertising products are advertised by the famous cine stars and sports professionals inorder to attract the consumers. A deep thought arises as, the influence of advertisement is good or bad to our society.

On its positive side, people who are in search of products gain by this as it gives about the insight of the product about the instruction of usage, availability in stores and the range of products thereby people can purchase it easily without spending more time exploring other options.

But on the other hand, advertisements are used as an influential tool by companies to gain profit. They advert products quite often and this act has caused consumers to buy products blindly without knowing its importance at times. For instance, an overweight lady can be easily swayed on seeing slimming products used by zero size models. Similarly, cigarettes became popular by the cine stars using it in a stylish way as shown in adverts.

Not only adults are targeted, in order to drag attention of children, toy companies advert their products in a selfish manner. As small children have less discriminatory power, they force their parents to buy for the products.

Having discussed both sides, I personally feel that the influence of advertisement is so much upon the society which has created financial crisis globally. Therefore, it is better to restrict adverts and also regular checks should be made by tv regulators. Also, adverts targeting upon childrens must be completely restricted.

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Essay on the Influence of Advertisements

by raman
(handigarh)


Can anyone check my essay and tell me about how much I score for this essay?

Consumers are faced with increasing numbers of advertisements from competing companies.

To what extent do you think are consumers influenced by advertisements?

What measures can be taken to protect them?


Undoubtedly, the advertisements of products are increasing day by day. These advertisements can easily available in the television programs and billboards. Add to above, consumers are influencing by these advertisements. I, personally believe that such issue should be handling with care to protect consumers.

The principal point is that as the technology develops, the way of advertising the product are changes than the ancient times. Companies used invention of technology like mass media, television, billboards as well as internet to promote products. Moreover, the advertisers used celebrities in ads of various products because specially youngsters like to imitating trends of stars. However, films and drams are main hub where an organization can advertise beauty products. The celebrities are not concerning about the quality of products. Even, the quality of product is not the same as shown in that time.

However, these advertisements are producing gargantuan impact on consumers mind. Firstly, Government plays imperative role to stop manipulation during promotion of product. Government should introduce strong laws against the companies those plays with the quality and effects of product in promotion time. Furthermore, celebrities should understand that they are idolizing of people, people trust on what they are saying for any product. Therefore, they do not help companies to wrong interpretation of product.

To recapitulate, Government as well as celebrities should notice about the manipulation of quality during advertising time. People should use their own thinking when the buy a product.

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Impacts of Advertisements Essay

by Sam
(Kerala,India.)

Some say that advertisements of toys and snacks have a huge impact on children and their parents, and therefore advertising to children should be banned.

Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Give your own opinion.


Since the dawn of time, advertisements have been a connecting medium between the society and the business centres. The majority of a human being, through the ages, have been relying on such strong system without much analysis of its credibility. Children, in their growing ages, are not able to judge the usefulness of any product. In the present growing market, a giant number of advertisements are directed towards children like a food product, toys, video games or other costly electronics, different clothes and uncountable varieties of cosmetics. In my view, advertisements of toys and snacks indicating towards children should be banned. The notion will be proved by analysis the harmful health effects and impact on behavior.

First of all, food habit of children should be healthy. Age appropriate balanced diet should be decided by the parents. The habit of a healthy diet will be damaged by fast food like different snacks, chips, canned food, deep fried food which are though tasty but having very little caloric value. For example, if a child satisfies hunger with ready-made fast food, then he or she will not be interested towards the food like milk, green leafy vegetables and so forth. Thus, it proves that advertisements of such product will rather harm the growing heath. That is why, it is advisable to restrict the door of such advertisements directing towards children.

Secondly, attractive toys, beautiful articles always lure children to gain that product by any means. It often deviates a growing adolescent to the road of anger, violence and frustration. Furthermore, when a child gets attracted to a product and parents cannot afford it due financial difficulty, it creates a huge impact on growing brain of a child. For example, children might think himself as an unprivileged person in the society in comparison to his peers. Hence, it is quite evident that the negative behavioral effect is linearly correlated with such faulty advertisements. Therefore, it is not wise to augment the negative behavioral phenotype inside a growing child since early ages.

To sum up, it is clear that advertisements of snacks and toys have a miserable effect on children physical health and behavior. Though some people might not give a look on the negativity of such phenomenon, it often creates a lot of tension among caregivers. According to me, it is always the duty of the parents to decide over activity of children. Leaving them vulnerable to such adverts will definitely harm them in a large extent. So, I strongly opine against the use of advertisements especially directing towards children.

dr.soumitradas@rediffmail.com

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Methods of Advertising Essay

by kasra
(iran)

Some of the methods used in advertising are unethical and unacceptable in today’s society.

To what extent do you agree with this view?

Nowadays in worldwide nations, every moment, we are displayed advertisements on TV shows, magazines or huge LED boards situated on intersections. In what methods they are produced or how much producers care about ethical trend to making them? I believe they intent to have more watcher to earn more money regardless to its consequences.

In first point of view, some families my does not need something that is displaying on tv, but as home wife see the advertisement will feel that is a good idea to have it and decide to buy it immediately. In another case, there is families who have young offspring who mentally is not wise enough to perceive everything in family situation. Therefore, they will have high demand while they are watching a new toy advertisement. Begging his parent to purchase it and crying all time. As a result his poor father will be finally obliged to buy the toy.

In second point, they may use psychological weaknesses; for example, by displaying a young lady with fitness body who is using some stuff on show to attract people for the good. It may apparently not so bad, but if we go deep in down will understand that how it may have an effect of youth brain and corrupt it.

Or by using a charming sentences on cigarette box "the ideal of a manhood" as a person see this advertisement on the box, will feel himself on his dreams and will buy it.

In conclusion, the advertisement makers, regardless to the bad effects the advertise may cause on people, will made them due to make their customers satisfying. But it may have bad consequences on society which due to avoiding this trend i suggest authorities make some plans for the circumstance to check and control advertisements before showing up.

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Adverts Aimed at Children Essay

by prab
(india)

A high percentage advertisements are aimed at children.

What are effects of television advertisements on children? How we control this problem?


Nowadays, there is bombard of advertisements on satelite channels, which sucessfully manipulate their target audience views and opinions. In this regards, some people believe that Television advertisements are influence to children for unhealthy diet and societal values in wrong way. I am agree with this notion, this essay will be analysed this items by give examples and give the methods to tackle this problem.

Firstly, it is axiomatic that advertisements encourage the kids for wrong dietary choices. For instance, big brands such as KFC, Mcdonald's often represent their food product as athletic diet. However, there are abundance of evidence proved that young food are recipes of obesity, diabetes and eventually cancer. In addition to it, in one advertisement protester are marching against the police and they stopped their protest when police give them Coca Cola. Some people pointed that these kind of television commercials effect on children societal value and also spoiled the image of police officers. For these reasons, advertisements encourage unbalance diet and wrong moral value among the kids.

While, there are some solutions to control this problem. For example, school should add the curriculum component related to disadvantages of advertisement and teaches to children how they control the effect of advertisements and also learn take benefit from the advertisement by comparing to products. More than that parent have great influence on their kids and they can direct impact on their children, For instance, when children watch television, they join them and enjoy with them and when unappropriate advertisement appear, they will change the channels. As above shows, schools and parents can play vital role to handle this problem.

In conclusion, as above has shown, these items has made concrete foundation that advertisement greatly influence the unhealthy dietary choices and moral value, i feel schools and parents can control this impact on children.

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Abstract

Advertising is a pervasive influence on children and adolescents. Young people view more than 40 000 ads per year on television alone and increasingly are being exposed to advertising on the Internet, in magazines, and in schools. This exposure may contribute significantly to childhood and adolescent obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarette and alcohol use. Media education has been shown to be effective in mitigating some of the negative effects of advertising on children and adolescents.

INTRODUCTION

Several European countries forbid or severely curtail advertising to children; in the United States, on the other hand, selling to children is simply “business as usual.”1 The average young person views more than 3000 ads per day on television (TV), on the Internet, on billboards, and in magazines.2 Increasingly, advertisers are targeting younger and younger children in an effort to establish “brand-name preference” at as early an age as possible.3 This targeting occurs because advertising is a $250 billion/year industry with 900 000 brands to sell,2 and children and adolescents are attractive consumers: teenagers spend $155 billion/year, children younger than 12 years spend another $25 billion, and both groups influence perhaps another $200 billion of their parents' spending per year.4,5 Increasingly, advertisers are seeking to find new and creative ways of targeting young consumers via the Internet, in schools, and even in bathroom stalls.1

THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

Research has shown that young children—younger than 8 years—are cognitively and psychologically defenseless against advertising.6–9 They do not understand the notion of intent to sell and frequently accept advertising claims at face value.10 In fact, in the late 1970s, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) held hearings, reviewed the existing research, and came to the conclusion that it was unfair and deceptive to advertise to children younger than 6 years.11 What kept the FTC from banning such ads was that it was thought to be impractical to implement such a ban.11 However, some Western countries have done exactly that: Sweden and Norway forbid all advertising directed at children younger than 12 years, Greece bans toy advertising until after 10 pm, and Denmark and Belgium severely restrict advertising aimed at children.12

ADVERTISING IN DIFFERENT MEDIA

Television

Children and adolescents view 400 00 ads per year on TV alone.13 This occurs despite the fact that the Children's Television Act of 1990 (Pub L No. 101–437) limits advertising on children's programming to 10.5 minutes/hour on weekends and 12 minutes/hour on weekdays. However, much of children's viewing occurs during prime time, which features nearly 16 minutes/hour of advertising.14 A 30-second ad during the Super Bowl now costs $2.3 million but reaches 80 million people.15

Movies

A 2000 FTC investigation found that violent movies, music, and video games have been intentionally marketed to children and adolescents.16 Although movie theaters have agreed not to show trailers for R-rated movies before G-rated movies in response to the release of the FTC report, children continue to see advertising for violent media in other venues. For instance, M-rated video games, which according to the gaming industry's own rating system are not recommended for children younger than 17 years, are frequently advertised in movie theaters, video game magazines, and publications with high youth readership.17 Also, movies targeted at children often prominently feature brand-name products and fast food restaurants.18 In 1997–1998, 8 alcohol companies placed products in 233 motion pictures and in 1 episode or more of 181 TV series.18

Print Media

According to the Consumer's Union,19 more than 160 magazines are now targeted at children. Young people see 45% more beer ads and 27% more ads for hard liquor in teen magazines than adults do in their magazines.20 Despite the Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry in 1998, tobacco advertising expenditures in 38 youth-oriented magazines amounted to $217 million in 2000.21

The Internet

An increasing number of Web sites try to entice children and teenagers to make direct sales. Teenagers account for more than $1 billion in e-commerce dollars,22 and the industry spent $21.6 million on Internet banner ads alone in 2002.23 More than 100 commercial Web sites promote alcohol products.23 The content of these sites varies widely, from little more than basic brand information to chat rooms, “virtual bars,” drink recipes, games, contests, and merchandise catalogues. Many of these sites use slick promotional techniques to target young people.23,24 In 1998, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (Pub L No. 105–277) was passed, which mandates that commercial Web sites cannot knowingly collect information from children younger than 13 years. These sites are required to provide notice on the site to parents about their collection, use, and disclosure of children's personal information and must obtain “verifiable parental consent” before collecting, using, or disclosing this information.25

MARKETING TECHNIQUES

Advertisers have traditionally used techniques to which children and adolescents are more susceptible, such as product placements in movies and TV shows,26 tie-ins between movies and fast food restaurants,18 tie-ins between TV shows and toy action figures or other products,7 kids' clubs that are linked to popular shows, and celebrity endorsements.27 Cellular phones are currently being marketed to 6- to 12-year-olds, with the potential for directing specific advertisers to children and preteens. Coca-Cola reportedly paid Warner Bros. Studios $150 million for the global marketing rights to the movie “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone,”28 and nearly 20% of fast food restaurant ads now mention a toy premium in their ads.29 Certain tie-in products may be inappropriate for children (eg, action figures from the World Wrestling Federation or an action doll that mutters profanities from an R-rated Austin Powers movie).

Children's advertising protections will need to be updated for digital TV, which will be in place before 2010. In the near future, children watching a TV program will be able to click an on-screen link and go to a Web site during the program.30 Interactive games and promotions on digital TV will have the ability to lure children away from regular programming, encouraging them to spend a long time in an environment that lacks clear separation between content and advertising. Interactive technology may also allow advertisers to collect vast amounts of information about children's viewing habits and preferences and target them on the basis of that information.31

SPECIFIC HEALTH-RELATED AREAS OF CONCERN

Tobacco Advertising

Tobacco manufacturers spend $30 million/day ($11.2 billion/year) on advertising and promotion.32 Exposure to tobacco advertising may be a bigger risk factor than having family members and peers who smoke33 and can even undermine the effect of strong parenting practices.34 Two unique and large longitudinal studies have found that approximately one third of all adolescent smoking can be attributed to tobacco advertising and promotions.35,36 In addition, more than 20 studies have found that children exposed to cigarette ads or promotions are more likely to become smokers themselves.37,38 Recent evidence has emerged that tobacco companies have specifically targeted teenagers as young as 13 years of age.39

Alcohol Advertising

Alcohol manufacturers spend $5.7 billion/year on advertising and promotion.40 Young people typically view 2000 beer and wine commercials annually,41 with most of the ads concentrated in sports programming. During prime time, only 1 alcohol ad appears every 4 hours; yet, in sports programming, the frequency increases to 2.4 ads per hour.42,43 Research has found that adolescent drinkers are more likely to have been exposed to alcohol advertising.44–50 Given that children begin making decisions about alcohol at an early age—probably during grade school50—exposure to beer commercials represents a significant risk factor.46,50 Minority children may be at particular risk.51

Drug Advertising

“Just Say No” as a message to teenagers about drugs seems doomed to failure given that $11 billion/year is spent on cigarette advertising, $5.7 billion/year is spent on alcohol advertising, and nearly $4 billion/year is spent on prescription drug advertising.52 Drug companies now spend more than twice as much on marketing as they do on research and development. The top 10 drug companies made a total profit of $35.9 billion in 2002—more than the other 490 companies in the Fortune 500 combined.53 Is such advertising effective? A recent survey of physicians found that 92% of patients had requested an advertised drug.54,55 In addition, children and teenagers may get the message that there is a drug available to cure all ills and heal all pain, a drug for every occasion (including sexual intercourse).41

Food Advertising and Obesity

Advertisers spend more than $2.5 billion/year to promote restaurants and another $2 billion to promote food products.56 On TV, of the estimated 40 000 ads per year that young people see, half are for food, especially sugared cereals and high-calorie snacks.29,57 Healthy foods are advertised less than 3% of the time; children rarely see a food advertisement for broccoli.58 Increasingly, fast food conglomerates are using toy tie-ins with major children's motion pictures to try to attract young people.59 Nearly 20% of fast food ads now mention a toy premium in their commercials.29 Several studies document that young children request more junk food (defined as foods with high-caloric density but very low nutrient density) after viewing commercials.60–63 In 1 study, the amount of TV viewed per week correlated with requests for specific foods and with caloric intake.61 At the same time, advertising healthy foods has been shown to increase wholesome eating in children as young as 3 to 6 years of age.64

Sex in Advertising

Sex is used in commercials to sell everything from beer to shampoo to cars.65 New research is showing that teenagers' exposure to sexual content in the media may be responsible for earlier onset of sexual intercourse or other sexual activities.66,67 What is increasingly apparent is the discrepancy between the abundance of advertising of products for erectile dysfunction (ED) (between January and October, 2004, drug companies spent $343 million advertising Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis)68 and the lack of advertising for birth control products or emergency contraceptives on the major TV networks. This is despite the fact that 2 national polls have found that a majority of Americans favor the advertising of birth control on TV.69,70 Ads for ED drugs give children and teens inappropriate messages about sex and sexuality at a time when they are not being taught well in school sex education programs.71,72 Research has definitively found that giving teenagers increased access to birth control through advertising does not make them sexually active at a younger age.73–80

American advertising also frequently uses female models who are anorectic in appearance and, thus, may contribute to the development of a distorted body self-image and abnormal eating behaviors in young girls.79,81,82

ADVERTISING IN SCHOOLS

Advertisers have slowly but steadily infiltrated school systems around the country. The “3 Rs” have now become the “4 Rs,” with the fourth R being “retail.”83,84 Ads are now appearing on school buses, in gymnasiums, on book covers, and even in bathroom stalls.85 More than 200 school districts nationwide have signed exclusive contracts with soft drink companies.86 These agreements specify the number and placement of soda-vending machines, which is ironic given that schools risk losing federal subsidies for their free breakfast and lunch programs if they serve soda in their cafeterias. In addition, there are more than 4500 Pizza Hut chains and 3000 Taco Bell chains in school cafeterias around the country.87

There is some good news, however. In May, 2006, the nation's largest beverage distributors agreed to halt nearly all sales of sodas to public schools and sell only water, unsweetened juice, and low-fat milk in elementary and middle schools. Diet sodas would be sold only in high schools.88

School advertising also appears under the guise of educational TV: Channel One. Currently available in 12 000 schools, Channel One consists of 10 minutes of current-events programming and 2 minutes of commercials. Advertisers pay $200 000 for advertising time and the opportunity to target 40% of the nation's teenagers for 30 seconds.89 According to a recent government report, Channel One now plays in 25% of the nation's middle and high schools81 and generates profits estimated at $100 million annually.89

CONCLUSIONS

Clearly, advertising represents “big business” in the United States and can have a significant effect on young people. Unlike free speech, commercial speech does not enjoy the same protections under the First Amendment of the Constitution.90 Advertisements can be restricted or even banned if there is a significant public health risk. Cigarette advertising and alcohol advertising would seem to fall squarely into this category, and ads for junk food could easily be restricted.91

One solution that is noncontroversial and would be easy to implement is to educate children and teenagers about the effects of advertising—media literacy. Curricula have been developed that teach young people to become critical viewers of media in all of its forms, including advertising.92–94 Media education seems to be protective in mitigating harmful effects of media, including the effects of cigarette, alcohol, and food advertising.93–96

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Pediatricians should become familiar with the methods that advertisers use to target children and adolescents.

  2. Pediatricians should only subscribe to magazines that are free of tobacco and alcohol advertisements for their waiting rooms (eg, Good Housekeeping has refused to carry tobacco ads since 1952).

  3. Pediatricians should counsel their patients to limit total noneducational screen time to no more than 2 hours/day,97 which will limit exposure to advertising of all kinds.

  4. Pediatricians should write letters to advertisers if they see inappropriate ads and should encourage parents to do the same (letters can be addressed to the Children's Advertising Review Unit, Council of Better Business Bureaus, 845 Third Ave, New York, NY 10022).

  5. Pediatricians should work with community groups and local school boards to implement media education programs that teach about the effects of advertising on children and adolescents. The federal government should help underwrite the cost of establishing and disseminating such programs.

  6. Pediatricians should work with parents, schools, community groups, and others to ban or severely curtail school-based advertising in all forms.

  7. Pediatricians should work with parent and public health groups to:

    1. ask Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to limit commercial advertising on children's programming to no more than 5 to 6 minutes/hour, which would decrease the current amount by 50%;

    2. ask Congress to implement a ban on cigarette and tobacco advertising in all media, including banners and logos in sports arenas;

    3. ask Congress to restrict alcohol advertising to what is known as “tombstone advertising,” in which only the product is shown, not cartoon characters or attractive women;

    4. ask Congress to implement a ban on junk-food advertising during programming that is viewed predominantly by young children;

    5. ask Congress to increase funding for public TV—the sole source of high-quality, educational, noncommercial programming for children;

    6. advocate for confining ads for ED drugs to after 10 pm. The American Academy of Pediatrics has always strongly endorsed the advertising of birth control on TV. There is now considerable evidence that birth control advertising could lower teen pregnancy rates even further while having no impact on rates of teen sexual activity.79 However, when birth control advertising is so rare on prime time TV, it makes no sense to allow ED drug advertising that may confuse children and teens about human sexuality and make sexual activity seem like a recreational sport.

    7. ask Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to prohibit interactive advertising to children in digital TV; and

    8. ask Congress to convene a national task force on advertising under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the FTC. This task force would discuss the nature of the current problem and the current research and would propose solutions toward limiting children's exposure to unhealthy advertising, including the funding of future research. The task force would include representatives from the toy industry, the fast food industry, and the advertising community, as well as pediatricians, child psychiatrists and psychologists, and public health advocates.

  8. Pediatricians, together with the American Academy of Pediatrics Media Resource Team, should work with the entertainment industry to ensure that the advertising of violent media to children does not occur, that product placements in movies and TV do not occur, that the dissemination and enforcement of the individual industries' own rating systems is facilitated, and that advertising for contraceptives is more widely disseminated on network TV.

COMMITTEE ON COMMUNICATIONS, 2006–2007

Donald L. Shifrin, MD, Chairperson

Ari Brown, MD

Bernard P. Dreyer, MD

Kenneth R. Ginsburg, MD, MSEd

Regina M. Milteer, MD

Kathleen G. Nelson, MD

Deborah Ann Mulligan, MD

LIAISONS

Michael Brody, MD

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Brian Wilcox, PhD

American Psychological Association

CONTRIBUTOR

*Victor C. Strasburger, MD

AAP Section on Media

STAFF

Carolyn Kolbaba

Veronica Noland

Footnotes

  • All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.

  • ↵* Lead author

TV—television • FTC—Federal Trade Commission • ED—erectile dysfunction

REFERENCES

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